Sorting out the Sloughs: Jacob Slough

Michael A. O’Neill
Copyright 25 April 2105
Last updated 4 March 2017
Seattle, King, Washington, USA

Summary

My wife’s third great-grandfather, William Slough (1810-1887) was the son of a Jacob Slough from Pennsylvania. I have encountered as many as twenty different Pennsylvanians with that name born before 1800.

While geography, age, spouse names and other factors can cleanly divide most these Jacob Sloughs, the brevity and scarcity of colonial and early U.S. records has created a great deal of confusion among amateur family historians.

Perhaps the most common mistake is claiming U.S. Army Captain Jacob Slough (1764-1838) as an ancestor. The mistake is entirely forgivable. It’s not just the almost gravitational force exerted by the abundance of documentation about Capt. Slough’s military career that inexorably but gradually draws in genealogists looking for a Jacob Slough in that era. His father, Colonel Matthias Slough (1733-1812)—an acquaintance of George Washington—is also the kind of colorful character anyone would want in their family tree. Counterintuitive though it may be, the best part about Capt. Slough is that it is extremely hard to prove via documentary evidence that he had children. This makes Capt. Slough a convenient blank slate.

This single-name study will attempt to establish basic genealogical facts—with a focus on identifying parents and children—for all twenty Jacob Sloughs who were born before 1800 and lived in Pennsylvania during and immediately after the Colonial period. Fourteen can be adequately identified, leaving six “loose ends,” or singleton records of a Jacob Slough that can’t easily be grouped with any others.

To ease the analysis, I have grouped all the Jacob Sloughs into three generations:

  1. The first generation immigrants born in Europe in the early 1700s;
  2. The second generation born mid-century (1740 to 1770); and
  3. The third generation born at the end of the century (1770 to 1800).

Both the second and third generations include new immigrants from German principalities, increasing the challenge of accurately delineating all of the Jacob Sloughs.

First Generation

A. Johannes Jacob Slough, who was born on 15 August 1708 in Adelshofen, Baden-Württemberg and apparently immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1719 at the age 11. He settled in Lancaster, Lancaster County, married Ursula Elizabeth Stein, and had seven children. Four of them lived to adulthood, including Johannes Matthias Slough, father of Jacob [F]. He died on 24 May 1750 in Lancaster, Lancaster County.

B. Johannes Jacob Slough, who was probably born in Adelshofen, Baden-Württemberg on 1717. He immigrated to Pennsylvania before 16 August 1734, when he acquired land in Macungie, Lehigh County. He was the father of at least seven children, including Bernhard Slough, father of Jacob [L].

Second Generation

C. The son of Johannes Philip Slough and Anna Margaret Hertzel. Born on 14 February 1743, he appeared in tax records in Lower Saucon Township, Northampton County between 1779 and 1787. He probably died in Strabane Township, Adams County in early 1788.

D. The man from Montgomery County who fathered six children with his wife Margaretha, including the father of Jacob [O]. He was probably also the father of Jacob [E] and the grandfather of Jacob [M].

E. The man who is buried in Centre Square, Montgomery County, with a birth date of 27 January 1762 and a date of death of 23 February 1826. This is certainly the same Jacob Slough who appeared in Montgomery County between 1769 and 1800.

F. The son of Matthias Slough, born on 15 December 1764 in Lancaster County, he was seriously injured fighting Miami Indians and allied Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley in 1794. He had three children with Catherine Gensimer (at least two out of wedlock). In 1805 he married Polly Graef. He passed away on 27 January 1838.

H. The son of Jacob [B] and Catharina Slough is a loose end: he was born on 29 April 1748 in Northampton County, and probably died in his mid-20s after being named as godfather in a baptismal record with his brother Leonard.

I. The man living in East Pennsboro, Cumberland County in 1800 is a loose end: he was born sometime before 1755, but there seem to be no other records about him.

J. The husband of Margaretta, a widow, who married Christian Bixler on 6 September 1785 in Cocalico Township, Lancaster County. Also a loose end, there appear to be no other records of his existence.

Third Generation

K. The son of Christian and Elizabeth Slough. Born on 20 May 1787 and baptized on 24 May 1787 at St. John’s Reformed (or Hain’s) Church in Heidelberg Township, Berks County, he spent his life in Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, dying on 29 December 1857. He is buried at the Muddy Creek Cemetery in Denver, Cocalico Township, Lancaster County.

L. The man who appears in the 1810 US census living adjacent to William Morey in Rye Township, Perry County. He married Elizabeth Morey in 1809, and had six children with her before passing away sometime between 1825 and 1830 in either Cumberland County, Pennsylvania or Mahoning County, Ohio. He is almost certainly the son of Bernhard Slough and grandson of Jacob [B], and would have born in Macungie, Northampton County.

M. The son of Nicolas Slough, he was born in Montgomery County probably between 1780 and 1790, Pennsylvania, and entered “the service of the United States as a private soldier” around 1810. His family did not hear from him again after that date. He probably didn’t have any children, and probably died in the mid-1810s, possibly during the War of 1812.

N. The son of Jacob Slough [G] and Catherine Gensimer. He was born on 31 May 1793 and baptized at the First Reformed Church in Lancaster on 22 July 1793. He married Anna Elizabeth and had eight children. In 1834, he and Anna moved their family from Harrisburg, Dauphin County to Peoria County, Illinois, where they spent the rest of their lives. He passed away on 30 November 1882 in Richwoods, Illinois.

O. The man who lived most of his life in Fairfield County, Ohio, but was born in Pennsylvania about 1796.

P. The son of John Slough and grandson of Jacob [D], he married Susannah Grove and had four children. Born in 1798, he lived his entire life in Montgomery County, passing away on 3 December 1848.

Q. The son of Jacob [E], born in either 1799 or 1805, he married Susan Rambo and had at least six children, five of whom died young. He lived his entire life in Montgomery County, and passed away sometime between 1860 and 1880.

R. A loose end, this Jacob appears living in Lewisburg, Union County in 1810, and was born sometime between 1766 and 1785.

S. A loose end, this man married Margaret Snyder in Harrisburg in 1809.

T. The son of Philip and Rosina Slough, born on 2 June 1771 and baptized at the Dryland Church in Lower Nazareth Township. His parents moved to North Carolina in late 1770s or early 1780s with his parents, but with no further records obviously attributable to this Jacob, he is a loose end.

Geography

While chronology provides a useful way to group these Jacob Sloughs, geography also helps to frame the family groupings. The map below shows a summary of the residences of all the Jacob Sloughs in this study, and show five important Slough family clusters:

  1. Montgomery County (DEMPQ), centered around Norristown just outside Philadelphia.
  2. Lancaster County (AFGJK), with two sub-groups:
    1. Lancaster borough in the center of the county (AFG); and
    2. Cocalico Township, close to the borders of Berks and Lebanon Counties. (JK)
  3. Old Northampton County (BCGH), which covers modern Bucks, Northampton and Lehigh Counties.
  4. Union County (R)
  5. The Harrisburg area (ILNSP), which is actually a temporal intersection of the Lancaster and Northampton clusters, along with a couple of loose ends.

It’s important to remember that the distances between these clusters were prohibitive. A trip from, say, Montgomery County just north of Philadelphia, to Harrisburg in Dauphin County, could take two or more days by foot or horse, as opposed to just two hours by car today (traffic permitting).

Slough geo distribution

A note on naming

Some of the people in this study may have consistently used a specific variant of the Schlauch surname, while others were recorded with two or more variants (e.g. Schlauch, Slaug, Schlough, Schlowch, etc.). For the sake of clarity, I will only use the Anglicized spelling “Slough” in this paper, unless directly quoting a source document.

Ethnic Germans and Pennsylvania Dutch of the period often had a “spiritual” name as their first name (used only in church records), and a middle “secular” name by which they were referred in daily life. I will only reference the spiritual/first name, if known, once. After that, I will only use the secular/middle name.

It was not uncommon for all the children in a family to share the same spiritual name, with Johannes/Johann/Hannes/Hanß the most common for males, and Johanna/Anna for females.[1]

For county names, I will use the name of the county that encompasses a given municipality today, rather than the name of the county at the time.

The first generation

A. Johannes Jacob Slough of Lancaster Borough, Lancaster County

This Jacob was born on 15 August 1708 in Adelshofen, the Kraichgau (modern Baden-Württemberg), to Johannes George Slough and Anna Barbara Keckner.[2] He immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1719 at the age of eleven, [3] or possibly in 1728 at the age of 20.[4] He settled in Lancaster, Lancaster County and married Ursula Elizabeth Stein on 2 January 1733.[5] The couple had seven children together,[6] of whom the births of five appear in Lancaster Borough parish records.[7]

  • Johannes Matthias, born 16 Oct 1733.
  • Johannes Georg, born 12 Apr 1735.
  • Elizabeth, born 19 May 1736.
  • Maria Margaretha, born 16 Nov 1738.
  • Maria Catherine, born 4 Dec 1740.

Jacob died on 24 May 1750 in Lancaster, Lancaster County after a long illness, and by that time, Georg and two other children had passed away.[8] His will, made out on 20 September 1749, wasn’t probated until 30 October 1765. It named Matthias, Elizabeth, Margaret and Catherine, along with his wife, Elizabeth.[9]

B. Johannes Jacob Slough of Macungie, Lehigh County

Johannes Jacob Slough was probably born on 14 March 1717 in Adelshofen, the Kraichgau, to Ernst Bernhard Slough and Anna Elisabeth Frick.[10] If so, he had three siblings who came to Pennsylvania in 1732: Johannes Andreas, Johann Philip (see Jacob [C]), and Anna Maria Schütz.[11]

Jacob immigrated to Pennsylvania sometime before 16 August 1734, when he acquired land in Macungie, Lehigh County.[12] It’s possible that he immigrated in 1728 on his own at the age of eleven, or with his three older siblings in 1732, hidden at 15 as one of five in the family group of his brother-in-law, George Ludwig Schütz.[13]

Sometime before April of 1743, when a Lehigh County property record names his wife, Jacob married Anna Catharina,[14] whose maiden name may have been Frantz (a surname which appears in the Adelshofen parish register). Parish records from the Jordan Lutheran Congregation in South Whitehall Township list several children born to Jacob and Catharina:[15]

  • Maria Susanna, born 23 Aug 1744.
  • Maria Magdalena, born 15 Mar 1746.
  • Johann Jacob, 29 Apr 1748.
  • Catharina, 26 Mar 1750.

Records from the Williams Township Congregation add a final child:[16]

  • Johann Philip, born 12 Apr 1743.

Northampton property records identify two additional children, Joseph and Leonard, to whom Jacob deeded his land in Macungie in 1779. Joseph and Leonard later split the Macungie property in a 1785 transaction where Leonard is identified as a tailor. Finally, a 1789 transaction shows a tailor named Leonard Slough purchasing an inn in Miller’s Town, Macungie Township, from his brother, Bernhard.[17]

The 1779 transaction where Jacob deeds his land to Joseph and Leonard is the last in Northampton County that can be attributed to him. If the 1717 birth year is correct, he would have been sixty-two in 1779, and so probably died between then and 1800, when he would have been eighty-three. His name doesn’t appear in the Northampton County Wills Vol 1 (1752-1787)[18] or Vol 2 (1786-1789),[19] which isn’t surprising considering he transferred his property to his sons Joseph and Leonard before his death, obviating the primary purpose of probate proceedings.

This Jacob probably had one additional son named Christian. He is the only Slough living in the Macungie area in the 1780s and 1790s that can’t be definitively tied to either Jacob or his brother Philip. He appears as a godfather to one of Joseph Slough’s children, while a Jacob and Catharina Slough are the godparents of his daughter, Lydia, born in 1792. There are also DNA matches for a woman from Pennsylvania with whom I collaborated that suggest a common descent from both Jacob’s brother, Philip, and from Jacob’s son Philip (who emigrated to North Carolina in the 1780s).

The second generation

C. The son of Philip Slough and Margaret Hertzel

This Jacob was born on 14 February 1743 to Johann Philip Slough and Anna Margaret Hertzel, and baptized Johann Jacob at the Williams Township Congregation in Northampton County.[20]

Philip purchased land in Lower Saucon, Northampton County in 1747, and died intestate around 1755 when Jacob was just twelve years old. Extensive probate hearings stemming from Philip’s death help track Jacob from 1759 through 1770.[21]

Jacob appeared in tax records in Lower Saucon Township, Northampton County in 1779, 1786, and 1787.[22] Lower Saucon Township is southwest of, and shares a border with, Williams Township where he was baptized.

Jacob disappears from Northampton County records after 1787, and probably moved to Strabane Township, York County about that time. The 21 March 1788 will of a Jacob Slough written in Strabane Township provides two tantalizing (though not conclusive) pieces of evidence.[23]

The first is the connection to the Hertzel family embodied by the choice of executor, George Hertzel, whom Jacob describes as his “trusty friend” in his will. Jacob’s mother’s maiden name was Hertzel, and his godfather was a maternal uncle named George Hertzel.

The second is a debtor mentioned in the will: Jacob empowered his executors to “Sell and Dispose of Two of the Bonds Due to me from Frederick Laback of Lower Saucon Township.” In a 17 March 1779 Northampton County probate file regarding the estate of one Henry Kratzer, the deceased’s Lower Saucon property is described as adjacent to, among others, Jacob Slough, Reinhart Labaugh and Frederich Labaugh.[24]

The will does not mention a spouse, let alone make a provision for one, instead bequeathing “One Side Saddle, Lately her Mother’s,” which indicates that Jacob’s wife pre-deceased him. It does make a provision for five daughters, Susannah, Elizabeth, Catharine, Rosannah and Mary (that order is from the will, possibly indicating birth order). Three of those names—Rosannah/Rosina, Mary/Maria and Catharine—are also the names of Jacob’s sisters. While this is helpful, it does not match typical ethnic German onomastic patterns for the period—you would expect one daughter named Margaret, after Jacob’s mother.[25]

No mention is made of any sons, nor of the spouses of his daughters. That said, in 1799 when she was sixteen, Jacob’s youngest daughter, Mary (sometimes Magdalena) requested that her guardian be changed from George Hartzell to a John Cline of Menallen Township. This man’s wife was named Susannah, who was probably Mary’s sister.

It is important to note that there was another Jacob Slough [F] born in Northampton County five years after this Jacob Slough, but there is little additional documentary evidence for him. It is possible that I have confused Jacob [C] and Jacob [F].

D. The man from Montgomery County who had six children with his wife Margaretha

Baptismal records from Boehm’s Reformed Church in Whitpain Township, Montgomery County and St. John’s Lutheran Church in Center Square, Whitpain Township, Montgomery County (just northeast of Norristown) name Jacob and Margaretha Slough as the parents of five children (the first four baptized at Boehm’s Reformed):[26]

  • Catharina (b. 1766)
  • Anna Maria (b. 1769)
  • Anna Elisabetha (b. 1771)
  • Johannes (1773-1856)
  • Johannes George (b. 1777)

A brief biography of Percival Slough—a great-grandson of Jacob’s—written by Percival’s daughter in 1956 suggests that George died during the War of 1812. That biography also mentions a sixth child, Adam, who also died in the War of 1812.[27]

If this Jacob Slough was in his mid-20s when his first child, Catharina, was born in 1766, then he was probably born in the late 1730s or early 1740s, and married Margaret around 1765.

There is a Jacob Slough who appeared in tax records in Norriton, Montgomery County in 1769 & 1774,[28] and is all but certainly this Jacob. In 1780, 1782, 1783, 1785, and 1786, the name Margaret Slough appears in tax records for the same township, which suggests this Jacob died between the birth of George in December of 1777 and 1780.[29]

E. The man buried in Centre Square, Montgomery County

According to the record of his burial in St. John’s Lutheran Church cemetery in Center Square, Montgomery County, this Jacob was born on 27 January 1762 and died on 23 February 1826.[30]

Examining Montgomery County records, he appears in tax and census records in that town in 1789,[31] 1798[32] and 1800.[33] There was also a Jacob Slough who was listed amongst the white men living in Norriton and capable of bearing arms between 1783 and 1790.[34] Records also show a Jacob Slough in nearby Providence and Abington in 1793[35] and 1798[36] respectively. Finally, the 1790 U.S. Census shows a Jacob Slough in Montgomery County (township not stated).[37]

He seems to have disappeared from records after that, not being recorded in the 1810 or 1820 U.S. Census.

He left no will,[38] dying intestate with his estate probated on 1 March 1826.[39] His estate settlement distributed equal shares to the following seven people: Catharine, Elisabeth, Rebecca, Joseph, Sarah and Jacob Slough, and to Jonas Rambo. Four of these are easily identifiable in later records:[40]

  1. U.S. Census records show a Joseph Slough (b. ~1796) living in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County in 1840, 1850, 1860 and 1870.[41] Living with him in 1850 and 1860 is a Catharine Slough (b. ~1798), who may be his sister, as they do not appear to have any children.
  2. A Sarah Slough is buried in the same cemetery as her father and a Catherine Slough, with a gravestone recording her birth on 10 Feb 1797 and her death on 26 September 1827.[42]
  3. Jonas Rambo is probably the husband of one of Jacob’s daughters. Unsourced family trees have a Margaret “Hough” married to a Jonas Rambo who is buried in the Christ Episcopal Church in Upper Merion Township, with a gravestone noting he was born 24 September 1790 and died on 9 February 1834.[43]. In my experience, Hough is a common mis-transcription of the name Slough in records of the period.
  4. The Jacob mentioned in this will was the administrator, and is certainly Jacob [P].

A note on this Jacob’s purported military service

The photo of the gravesite on findagrave.com show two gravestones, one weather-worn to near illegibility, the other apparently newly cut. The newer gravestone even has crisp edges in the dirt, with no vegetation surrounding the stone, all of which suggest the new gravestone was added shortly before the photo was added to findagrave.com on 17 January 2010. The new stone has the inscription “PVT 8 CL 2 BN NHTN MIL” which might work out to Private 8th Class 2nd Battalion, Northampton Militia. I suspect the new gravestone was added in 2009 or 2010 by people wished to honor his military service in the Revolution.

There was a Private, 8th Class in the 4th Company of the 4th Battalion of Pennsylvania Associators from Northampton County.[44] There was also a Jacob Slough from Upper Milford Township, Northampton County that paid a Lenard Acre to act as a substitute so he could avoid a 22 July 1781 draft.[45] These Northampton County militia records match better with Jacob [C] or Jacob [F], both of whom lived in Northampton County and were of appropriate age for military service in the Revolutionary War.

It’s simply hard to understand why a man living just north of Philadelphia in 1774 would travel thirty miles north as the crow flies—a trip of at least several hours by foot or horse—to drill with the Northampton Associators when he could do so right at home in Montgomery County.

F. The son of Matthias Slough

Jacob [F] was born on 15 December 1764,[46] almost certainly in Lancaster Borough, Lancaster County. His parents were Matthias Slough (son of Jacob [A]) and Mary Gibson, as evidenced by, for example:

  • A series of letters between Matthias Slough, Jacob [F] and William Simmons, an accountant with the War Department. The most genealogically relevant letter is one to Matthias dated 17 October 1796, which refers to a financial bond in which Matthias “became bound with [his] your Son, Capt. Jacob Slough” [47]
  • The 27 November 1824 deposition of Philip Messenkopf supporting Jacob [F]’s application for a military pension, which notes that after Jacob was wounded in 1794, “He resided with his father Matthias Slough, Esq., in the City of Lancaster.”[48]

While Mary is not mentioned in these sources, she is named in baptismal records for Jacob [F]’s siblings,[49] and her 23 April 1757 marriage to Matthias is mentioned in a Lancaster County Historical Society journal article.[50]

Jacob [F] was commissioned as a Captain in the Indian Wars fought between 1791 and 1794, and was critically injured at the final encounter, the Battle of Fallen Timbers.[51]

Records of the First Reformed Church in Lancaster, Penna. list a Jacob Slough and Catherine Gensimer as the parents of three children:[61]

  • Jacob [N] (1793-1882)
  • George (b. 1796)
  • Elizabeth (b. 1800)

The indexed and translated baptismal records note that while both Jacob [N] and George were illegitimate, Elizabeth was not, suggesting that Jacob [F] and Catherine may have married between 1796 and 1800. I have been unable to find such a record, however.

There is no documentary evidence proving that Jacob [F] was the father of these three children, but in a series of January 2017 emails, Denise Batey (a descendant of George Slough) stated that her Ancestry.com DNA results show that she is genetically related to a large number of people whose trees claim descent from siblings of Jacob [F]’s mother, Mary Gibson (as well as to Catherine Gensimer).

Five pieces of circumstantial evidence lend weight to the DNA results.

  1. I have found no other documentary evidence of a second Jacob Slough of the right age living in Lancaster Borough in the 1790s.
  2. A careful analysis of Jacob [F]’s military service does not show that he was on active service in Ohio or Michigan when Jacob and George were conceived.
  3. Jacob [F]’s eldest son, Jacob [N], was an innkeeper just like Jacob [F] and Matthias.
  4. Jacob [N] started out his adult life in Harrisburg, Penna., where Matthias, his wife and most of his adult children were living after 1800.
  5. The story implied by Jacob [F]’s marriage in 1805 and his father turning over management of the White Swan to Jacob in 1806: As Denise Batey put it, “Old Matthias probably told his son he had better settle down or he wouldn’t get to take over the management of the White Swan or inherit anything.” While it’s purely speculative, it is a pretty reasonable interpretation of that chain of events.

Jacob [F] probably spent his entire life in Lancaster Borough, with the exception of a couple years in Columbia, Lancaster County around 1805.[52]

In 1792, he was identified as from Lancaster Borough in an indictment where he was charged with breaking the window of Josiah Lockhart. Again in 1808, he was indicted by a Lancaster County Grand Jury, this time for assault and battery of a William Graff (an in-law?).[53]

A Jacob Slough of the appropriate age range appears in Lancaster Borough in both the 1810 and 1820 U.S. Census, with the 1820 census including the title “Coln.”[54] Jacob [F]’s name doesn’t appear in the 1830 U.S. census for Lancaster City or Township, but letters appended to his pension file from 1836 state that he resided in that municipality at that time.

In the 1810 U.S. Census, Jacob [F] was living with his wife, Anna Maria “Polly” Graef (whom he married on 20 February 1805)[55] and a free white girl between ten and fifteen. The girl is at least five years too old to be Jacob [F] and Polly’s daughter (at least, for her to have been born after they married), and is likely a servant.

The 1820 household is much larger: in addition to Jacob [F], there were three whites between sixteen and twenty-five (two female, one male), an older white female (not Polly—she passed away on 19 March 1820, [56] well before the census was recorded on 7 August 1820), and a family of five free African-Americans. In this instance, all three of the white children could be young enough to be Jacob [F] and Polly’s children, except that I would expect them to appear in the 1810 census record as well.

Jacob [F]’s pension file noted that he died on 27 January 1838. He left no will according to a 6 March 1838 petition to the Lancaster County Orphan’s Court by an Elizabeth Peterman nee Foutz, widow of Joachim Peterman, to be the administratrix of his estate.[57] His probate file appears to cease with the inventory Mrs. Peterman filed on 20 March 1838, valuing his estate at $34.37 excluding his $94.50 pension from the United States.[58]

The name Elizabeth Peterman does provide a potential clue about the final years of Jacob’s life: she took over management of a public house called the “North American Hotel” in Lancaster in 1843,[59] and is on record petitioning the mayor of Lancaster borough for a tavern license as early as 1835.[60] She was probably the proprietor of the inn where Jacob lived at the time of his death, strongly indicating that he had no family to care for him.

The second generation: loose ends

H. The son of Jacob [B] and Catharina Slough, born in 1748 in Northampton County

Records of the Jordan Lutheran Congregation in South Whitehall Township note the birth of a Johann Jacob Slough on 29 April 1748 to Jacob [B] and Catharina Slough.[63]

Then on 11 June 1773, Jacob [H] and Leonard Slough are the godfathers at a baptism, and are clearly identified as brothers.[64] Leonard was a son of Jacob Slough [B] according to a 7 November 1785 Northampton County deed.[65]

Beyond that, there are no obvious records of his existence in Pennsylvania. While his father had five sons, only four—Philip, Joseph, Leonard and Bernard—appear in records after 1773, suggesting that this Jacob may have passed away in his late twenties. Still, any of the “Loose Ends” Jacobs could represent this man’s future, as could Jacob [F].

His brother Philip suggests another destiny for Jacob [H]: the North Carolina back country. Philip and his wife Rosina moved to Rowan County, N.C. in the 1780s, and a Jacob Slough appears living in neighboring Mecklenburg in 1790, Rowan County in 1800, and Burke County in 1810. [66] This could easily be the same man, as he is aged over 45 in both the 1800 and 1810 U.S. censuses.

I. The man living in East Pennsboro, Cumberland County in 1800

The 1800 U.S. Census records a Jacob Slough living along the Susquehanna River just north of Harrisburg in 1800.[67] The eldest male and head of the household of eleven souls—presumably Jacob [I]—was listed as forty-five years or older, suggesting a birth date prior to 1756.

J. The husband of Margaretta

Rev. John Waldschmidt recorded baptisms and marriages in Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, including the 6 September 1785 marriage between Margaretta, widow of Jacob Slough, and Christian Bixler (also a widower).[68]

Jacob [J] must have died sometime before his widow’s remarriage, suggesting that his birth occurred before 1765 (assuming he was at least twenty-years-old when his widow remarried).

(Considering the close proximity of Michael Schlauch’s family in Brecknock Township, and Bixler’s reported birth around 1730, I am sorely tempted to connect Jacob [J] to the Johann Jacob Schlauch baptized in Gomaringen, Germany on 6 October 1732. I am also tempted to name his as grandfather of Jacob [K]. But there’s just not enough evidence for either conclusion.)

The third generation

K. The son of Christian and Elizabeth Slough

This Jacob Slough was born on 20 May 1787 and baptized on 24 May 1787 at St. John’s Reformed (or Hain’s) Church in Heidelberg Township, Berks County.[69]

Conveniently, his gravestone in the Muddy Creek Cemetery in Denver, Lancaster County notes his date of birth as well as of his death (29 December 1857).[70]

He is certainly the Jacob Slough appearing in the 1820 and 1850 U.S. census living in Cocalico Township, Lancaster County,[71] which is his father’s place of residence in 1783, 1785, 1800 & 1810,[72] and where his father’s will was recorded in 1819.[73]

He had at least two children, Elisabeth (b. ~1815) and Catharine (b. ~1817), according to Lancaster County records relating to school tuition payments made on behalf of pauper children.[74] Their ages in these records match the age brackets of two of the three girls living with him in 1820.

L. The man living in Rye Township, Perry County in 1810

This Jacob Slough is a challenge: I have only discovered four primary sources documenting his existence.

The first is an 1810 U.S. Census record showing a Jacob Slough between sixteen and twenty-five years of age residing in Rye Township, Perry County. This Jacob was living with a woman in the same age bracket, and a boy under the age of ten.[75]

The previous family visited by the census recorder is that of William Morey, strongly suggesting that Jacob Slough and William Morey were neighbors. Family tradition is that William was Jacob’s father-in-law, and William’s 6 July 1839 will (made out in Mahoning County, Ohio) supports this, naming an Elizabeth Slough as his daughter.[76] More important is William’s estate settlement from 5 November 1850: Elizabeth Slough doesn’t appear as a legatee (she had died before the estate was settled), but her children are listed, including William and Leonard Slough.[77]

Again, family tradition—probably sourced from Leonard’s son, Elias, who would know—is that Leonard was born on 28 December 1818, which matches a birth record from the Zion Lutheran Church in Harrisburg, Dauphin County for a Leonard Slough, whose father was listed as “Jacob Schlauch.”[78]

That same church has a 23 April 1809 marriage record for a “Jacob Schlauch and Elisabeth Moore.”[79] This provides enough time between their marriage and the birth of their first son, William, thirteen months later on 14 May 1810.[80] The miss on the surname—Moore rather than Morey—doesn’t mean it’s not a match. Lutheran church records from Adams County, Pennsylvania (which includes the birth and baptism of Jacob’s wife, Elizabeth Slough née Morey) have four different spellings for the surname, including “More” but not including “Morey,”[81] while William’s own probate settlement includes the spellings Morely and More.

While it’s a bit circuitous, those three records—William Morey’s estate settlement, the 1809 marriage record, and Leonard’s baptism—tie together Jacob Slough, Elizabeth Morey, and their children:

  • William (1810-1887)
  • Mary Ann (1812-1863), who married Daniel Shenefield
  • Betsey (1814-1890), who married John McCorkle
  • George (1816-1900)
  • Leonard (b. 1818)
  • Anna (1823-1868), who married John Shenefield.

There is only one more record for Jacob, a February 1825 contract where he exchanged his share of his father’s estate with his brother, Solomon, for $400. That contract notes his place of residence as Dickinson Township, Cumberland County, a few miles southwest of Rye Township.[82]

He doesn’t definitively appear in any further records, suggesting that he died after the February 1825 contract, and his wife’s appearance in Boardman, Ohio as head of household in the 1830 U.S. Census.[83]

Tracing this Jacob’s ancestry is more challenging, but the 1810 U.S. Census points to the answer. Also living in Rye Township that year is a “Bernard Slough,”[84] whose household in the 1800 U.S. Census includes one young man between the age of ten and fifteen (that is, born between 1785 and 1790,[85] while the 1790 Census notes a male under sixteen.[86] Both of these match this Jacob’s expected age from the 1810 U.S. census.

Additionally, on the same day that Jacob married Elisabeth “Moore,” and in the same church, Georg, the son of Wilhelm and Elisabeth “Moore,” was baptized, with “Bernard and Justine Schlauch” named as godparents.[87] Finally, Bernhard’s 2 November 1821 will names a Jacob Slough as his son[88] (Regrettably, according to a February 2015 email exchange with the Perry County Register of Wills, there are no further administration records for Bernhard’s estate).

In other words, the Jacob Slough that married Elisabeth Morey was the son of Bernhard and Justine Slough based on Bernhard’s will combined with supporting evidence of familial bonds formed on the same day in the same church.

That said, considering Bernhard’s birth year of 1757,[89] he could also be the father of two of the three 3rd generation loose ends, namely:

  • The Jacob Slough who married Margaret Snyder on 12 Mar 1809 in Harrisburg; and
  • The Jacob Slough living in Lewisburg, Union County in 1810. That census record lists a man born between 1766 and 1785, so as long as he was born after 1775 (when Bernard was just eighteen) it’s a possibility.

The former is particularly vexing, as his marriage is so close chronologically to that of Elizabeth Morey’s. Still, the lack of further records of his existence point to an early death, which conflicts with Bernhard’s 1823 will and the related 1825 transaction between his sons, Jacob and Solomon.

The latter presents a tough geographic hurdle—how could he have met and wed a woman living sixty miles to the south?

Bernhard is too young to be the father of either of the loose ends from the 2nd generation.

M. The son of Nicolas Slough

When Nicolas Slough, of Norriton, Montgomery County made out his will on 9 March 1821, he left a special provision for his son, Jacob:

“Whereas my son Jacob Slough entered the services of the United States as a private soldier about ten years since and has not been heard of during that time, wether [sic] he is dead or living, my will is that in case he shall be living if he makes his claim known to my hereinafter named executor within one year after the decease of my said wife, he shall have an equal share with his brothers and sisters of the sum of Fourteen Hundred dollars vested in my real estate as a fund for my said wife’s dower, but not after one year of my said wife’s decease.”[90]

When Nicolas wrote out a codicil to his will on 25 July 1831, he made no modification to the provision for his son Jacob (let alone additional mention of him).

This Jacob probably did not marry and have children: if he had, Nicholas would almost certainly have made a direct provision for any grandchildren by Jacob.

Unfortunately, the National Archive and Records Administration—which maintains records of U.S. Army enlistments—has no record of a Jacob Slough from Montgomery County who enlisted around 1810 or 1811 and died shortly thereafter.

That said, in the improbable scenario where this Jacob decided to cut all ties with his family, he could be one of the 3rd generation loose ends—for example, the Jacob Slough who married Margaret Snyder in 1809, or the one living in Lewisburg, Union County. He could also be the Jacob living next door to William Morey in Rye Township in 1810.

N. The son of Jacob Slough and Catherine Gensimer

This Jacob was born on 31 May 1793 to Jacob Slough and Catherine Gensimer, and baptized at the First Reformed Church in Lancaster Borough on 22 July 1793. His baptismal record notes that he was illegitimate, as was his brother, George, born in 1796. Their sister, Elizabeth, was not listed as illegitimate at her baptism in 1800, suggesting their parents married between 1796 and 1800. [91]

Jacob married a woman named Anna Elizabeth sometime in the mid-1810s, and they had eight children together:

  • Mary Rebecca, born 14 May 1817 and baptized in October 1817 at the Zion German Lutheran Church.[92]
  • Catharine Lavinia, born 29 October 1818 and baptized at the Zion German Lutheran Church.[93] She died in 1823 in Harrisburg.[94]
  • Caroline Elizabeth, born 15 March 1820 and baptized at the Zion German Lutheran Church.[95]
  • Maria Luisa, born 4 January 1822 and baptized at the Zion German Lutheran Church.[96]
  • Catharine L., born around 1824. She married George Roedecker in Peoria on 16 March 1841.[97]
  • Jacob, born between 1828 and 1831.[98]
  • Henry Clay, born September 1836 in Illinois.
  • George Washington, born in 1839 in Illinois.[99]

Jacob and Elizabeth lived in Harrisburg in 1820[100] and 1830,[101]

The 1820 census does have some confusing information, namely the presence of a male and a female between the ages of 10 and 15 (born between 1805 and 1810). Both are too old to be Jacob’s younger siblings, George (b. 1796) and Elizabeth (b. 1800). Likewise, Jacob is quite young to be their father: he would have been between twelve and seventeen when they were born. Still, there are three females below age five, matching Mary Rebecca (b. 1817), Catharina Lavinia (b. 1818) and Caroline Elisabeth (b. March 1820).

The problem is even worse in the 1830 census. While there is a male under five matching Jacob III (b. 1829), there is still that mismatched male born between 1805 and 1810. One the female side, Mary R. appears in the 10-14 age bracket, and Caroline E. and Maria Luisa appear in the 5-9 bracket. That leaves one women aged 5-9, one 15-19, and two 20-29.

That said, they were innkeepers, so some of these minors may have been employees.[102] Or perhaps these records are actually for Jacob [S].

In 1834, they moved their family to Peoria County, Illinois,[103] where he was recorded living in 1840,[104] 1850,[105] 1860,[106] 1865[107] and 1880 U.S. Census.[108] Critically, the 1850, 1860 and 1880 U.S. Censuses name a Mary R. Slough and Caroline E. Slough living with Jacob. The birth years for both women match baptismal records from the Zion Lutheran Church in Harrisburg.[109]

Jacob passed away on 30 November 1882 in Richwoods, Illinois, and is buried in the Springdale Cemetery and Mausoleum. According to findagrave.com, his gravestone notes that he lived for “89 years, 5 mos 29 days” [110] which yields a date of birth of 1 June 1793—just a single day off from his baptismal record.

When Anna died intestate, probate administration documents show that she apparently owned a healthy portion of the couple’s property. The documents explicitly name all of their children.[111]

Jacob named three of his children in his 1 February 1879 will (recorded on 17 December 1882): he bequeathed all his personal property to his daughters Mary Rebecca and Caroline Elizabeth, and named his son Jacob W. as executor of the estate. His real property was to be sold, with the proceeds shared equally among his children.

Mary and Caroline were unmarried, and described as “incapable of taking care of themselves” and “distracted persons” in the couple’s probate administration documents.[112]

O. The man buried in Fairfield County, Ohio

Born between 1796 and 1802 in Pennsylvania, this Jacob was recorded living in Bloom Township, Fairfield County, Ohio in the 1830, 1850, 1860 and 1870 U.S. Census.[113] He married Mary Hall[114] before 1832 and had at least three children, Henry, Israel and Susannah. He passed away on 9 March 1876, and was buried in Lithopolis, Fairfield County, Ohio.[115]

P. The son of John Slough of Montgomery County

This Jacob was born around 1798 or 1799 in Montgomery County to John Slough and Mary Custer. He married Susannah Grove on 2 Dec 1824,[116] and together they had four children:[117]

  1. Mary Ann (1827-1910), who married Charles Schild.
  2. John Sylvester (1829-1917)
  3. Percival Slough (1837-1933)
  4. Ann Elizabeth (1842-1883).

Jacob passed away on 4 December 1848 in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.[118]

Q. The son of Jacob Slough [E] of Montgomery County

Born in either 1799 or 1805 according to 1850 and 1860 U.S. Census records,[119] this Jacob barely meets the pre-1800 birth qualification for this study.

Without the oral history passed down by Percival Slough, son of Jacob [P], it would be all but impossible to determine the fathers of Jacobs [P] and [Q]. Both men lived in Montgomery County at the same time, were born with a few years of each other, and married women with similar forenames (Susannah and Susan, respectively). But Percival names his grandfather as John, and his mother as Susannah Grove.

With Jacob [P] eliminated, this Jacob is almost certainly the son named in (and administrator of) Jacob Slough [E]’s estate settlement.

The 1850 U.S. Census lists a Sarah Slough, born about 1827, living with Jacob [Q] and Susan Slough in Upper Merion, Montgomery County. A 1915 death certificate of a Sarah S. Taylor, born 19 January 1827 in Upper Merion, Montgomery County, names Jacob Slough and Susan Rambo as her parents.[120] Whomever reported Sarah’s death thought that her father was born in England, which does not match with the Pennsylvania birth noted in other records.

Jacob Slough and Susan Rambo had at least five other children together beyond Sarah, all of whom died young:[121]

  • Edward (1821-1827)
  • Charles M. (1824-1836)
  • Israel (1825-1831)
  • Sophia (1825-1831)
  • Mary Jane (1837-1838)

The 1880 U.S. Census records Susan as a widowed boarder living with Catherine Famous in Norristown, Montgomery County[122]—the same family with which Jacob and Susan were living in 1860. Jacob must have passed away sometime between 1860 and 1880.

Susan passed away on 4 June 1887, and was buried in the Old Swedes church graveyard in Upper Merion, Montgomery County.[123]

The third generation: loose ends

R. The man living in Lewisburg, Union County in 1810

The 1810 U.S. Census records a Jacob Slough living along the Susquehanna in Lewisburg, Union County in 1810.[124] The eldest male—presumable Jacob, the head of a household of six—was listed between the ages of 26 and 44, suggesting a birth year between 1766 and 1785.

S. The man who married Margaret Snyder in 1809

This Jacob Slough married Margaret Snyder on 12 March 1809 at the Salem Reformed Church in Harrisburg, Dauphin County. The marriage record notes that Jacob was from Columbia, Lancaster County, while Margaret was from nearby Middletown, Dauphin County.[125]

There are no other obvious records which match this couple.

It’s unlikely this is Jacob [M], the son of Jacob Slough and Catherine Gensimer, as he would have been just fifteen at the time of his marriage.

It’s also unlikely to be Jacob [L], the probable son of Bernhard and Justina Slough of Rye Township, as he wed Elizabeth Morey on 23 April 1809 just a few weeks later. Of course, Margaret could have died a few days after her marriage, and Jacob [L] found a new bride post haste, but… the accelerated timeline seems improbable.

This could be Jacob [J]—or either Jacob [F], [H] or [O] remarrying—though there is no evidence one way or the other.

T. The son of Philip and Rosina Slough

Baptismal records of the Dryland Church in Lower Nazareth Township, Northampton County record the birth of a John Jacob Slough on 2 June 1771 to Philip and Rosina Slough.[126]

After this, there appear to be no further records for a Jacob of this age in Northampton County. His parents moved to North Carolina in the late 1770s or early 1780s, but there are no obvious records of this Jacob in that state. There is, however, a single 1798 baptismal record from the St. John’s Lutheran Church in Cabarrus County, North Carolina for a Barbara Slough born to a Jacob Slough and Madalena Abendschon. This Jacob would have been 27, which is a good fit for a birth in that era.

End notes

[1] Ethnic Germans who immigrated to Russia in the mid-1700s—who were from the same communities as those that immigrated to Pennsylvania—adopted the practice of contracting the two names for daily use, so that an Anna Elizabeth might be called “Anlis,” or a Johannes Adam “Hanarm.”

[2] Kirchenbuch, 1655-1963. Evangelische Kirche Adelshofen (A. Eppingen). FHL 1189094.

Smith, Debra D. and Frederick S. Weiser. Trinity Lutheran Church Records, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Vol. I 1730-1767. Closson Press. 1995.

[3] Ancestry.com. U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, 2010. Original data: Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: Gale Research, 2012.

[4] Heinrich, Rudolph; Mall, Adolf; Rocker, Benrd; Wolfmuller, Wilhelm. 700 Jahre Adelshofen 1287-1987. Eppingen: Stadt Eppingen. 1987. p. 125

[5] Trinity Lutheran Church Records, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Vol. I 1730-1767.

[6] Trinity Lutheran Church Records, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Vol. I 1730-1767.

[7] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lancaster County, 1723-1777. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1997.

[8] Trinity Lutheran Church Records, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Vol. I 1730-1767.

[9] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-28758-9273-65?cc=1999196&wc=9PM8-4WY:268493801,268514701 : accessed 4 January 2015), Lancaster > Wills 1730-1773 vol A-B > image 106 of 514; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

[10] Kirchenbuch, 1655-1963. Evangelische Kirche Adelshofen (A. Eppingen). FHL 1189094.

[11] 700 Jahre Adelshofen 1287-1987. p. 125

[12] Anderson, Candace E. Abstracts of Deeds and other Property Records Northampton County Pennsylvania, Vol. 3. Closson Press. Apollo, Penna. 2002.

[13] 700 Jahre Adelshofen 1287-1987. p. 125

[14] Kirchenbuch, 1655-1963. Evangelische Kirche Adelshofen (A. Eppingen). FHL 1189094.

[15] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lehigh County, 1734-1800. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1992. p 250.

[16] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Northampton County, 1733-1800. Gateway Press, Inc. Baltimore, Md. 1991. page 187.

[17] Ibid.

[18] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-28805-13940-27?cc=1999196&wc=9PMK-DPV:268497601,272470901 : accessed 13 January 2015), Northampton > Wills 1752-1800 vol 1-3 > image 10 of 586; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

[19] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-28805-15135-24?cc=1999196&wc=9PMK-DPV:268497601,272470901 : accessed 13 January 2015), Northampton > Wills 1752-1800 vol 1-3 > image 287 of 586; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

[20] Pennsylvania Births, Northampton County, 1733-1800. Page 187.

[21] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch ( https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-28838-38633-9?cc=1999196&wc=9PMT-VZ9:268497601,268532001 : accessed 1 February 2015), Northampton > Orphans’ Court records 1752-1795 vol A-E > image 26 of 511; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

“Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch ( https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-28838-39510-1?cc=1999196&wc=9PMT-VZ9:268497601,268532001 : accessed 1 February 2015), Northampton > Orphans’ Court records 1752-1795 vol A-E > image 165 of 511; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

Genealogies of Pennsylvania Families: from the Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine. Vol. I Arnold-Hertzel. “Hans Georg Hertzel, Pioneer of Northampton County, and his family.” Genealogical Publishing Company. Baltimore. 1982. pp. 866-876.

Price, Charles H. A Hartzell-Price family history and genealogy. Charles H. Price, Jr. Telford, Penna. 1971. pp. 236.

[22] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794; Microfilm Roll: 331.

[23] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-28759-19621-94?cc=1999196&wc=9PM8-DPD:268493601,270353201 : accessed 4 January 2015), York | Wills 1779-1789 vol E-G | image 596 of 649; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

[24] Anderson, Candace E. Genealogical Abstracts of Orphans Court Records, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, Vol. A-E, 1752-1795. Closson Press. Apollo, Pa. 1998. p 101

[25] Kerchner, Charles F., Jr. “18th Century PA German Naming Customs.” Accessed via http://www.kerchner.com/germname.htm on 28 January 2015.

Riepe, Anne S. “German Naming Customs.” Accessed via http://www.rieperoots.com/pages/Names/customs.htm on 28 January 2015.

[26] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Montgomery County, 1682-1800. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1993. p 408.

[27] Garber, Elizabeth A. Slough. “Life on the Farm, a Century Ago.” Bulletin of the Historical Society of Montgomery County Pennsylvania. Volume XI; Fall, 1957 – Spring, 1959 Historical Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Norristown, Penna.

[28] Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794; Microfilm Roll: 332.

[29] Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794; Microfilm Roll: 330

[30] Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=46807226 accessed on 28 January 2015)]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

Pennsylvania DAR GRC report ; s2 v049 : St. John’s Evangelical Lutheran Church records / Gwynedd Chapter. 1993.

While these two sources agree on the date of death, they differ on the year of birth by twenty years. The DAR source is from 1993 and states that the gravestone says he lived for 64 years and 27 days. The Find-a-grave record uses the date recorded on the new gravestone. Not only does the older DAR source feel more reliable than a gravestone added around 2010, the year of birth is a better fit for the ages of his children.

[31] Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission; Records of the Office of the Comptroller General, RG-4; Tax & Exoneration Lists, 1762-1794; Microfilm Roll: 330.

[32] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, U.S. Direct Tax Lists, 1798 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Citing United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania. M372, microfilm, 24 rolls. Records of the Internal Revenue Service, 1791-2006, Record Group 58. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

[33] U.S. Census. Year: 1800; Census Place: Norriton, Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Series: M32; Roll: 41; Page: 70; Image: 75; Family History Library Film: 363344.

Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Citing Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

[34] Pennsylvania Archives. Series 6, Volume III, Militia Rolls- 1783-1790, p 1342. Accessed on 1 February 2015 via http://www.fold3.com/image/3530651/.

[35] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Original data: Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

[36] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, U.S. Direct Tax Lists, 1798 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors. Citing United States Direct Tax of 1798: Tax Lists for the State of Pennsylvania. M372, microfilm, 24 rolls. Records of the Internal Revenue Service, 1791-2006, Record Group 58. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

[37] U.S. Census. Year: 1790; Census Place: Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Series: M637; Roll: 9; Page: 24; Image: 24; Family History Library Film: 0568149.

[38] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-28761-1223-61?cc=1999196&wc=9PMD-MNL:268497301,274281501 : accessed 28 January 2015), Montgomery > Will index 1784-1942 R-Z > image 162 of 647; county courthouses, Pennsylvania.

[39] “Pennsylvania, Probate Records, 1683-1994,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-28761-14096-47?cc=1999196&wc=9PMD-3TL:26849 7301,268517601 : accessed 28 January 2015), Montgomery > Administration record index 1784-1941 S-Z

[40] 1826 estate administration of Jacob Slough. Pennsylvania, Montgomery, Recorder of Wills.

[41] U.S. Census. Year: 1840; Census Place: Upper Merion, Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Roll: 478; Page: 307; Image: 624; Family History Library Film: 0020552.

U.S. Census. Year: 1850; Census Place: Upper Merion, Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Roll: M432_800; Page: 424A; Image: 162.

U.S. Census. Year: 1860; Census Place: Upper Merion, Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1143; Page: 289; Image: 298; Family History Library Film: 805143.

U.S. Census. Year: 1870; Census Place: Upper Providence, Montgomery, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1379; Page: 378B; Image: 113; Family History Library Film: 552878.

[42] Pennsylvania DAR GRC report; s2 v049 : St. John’s Evangelical Lutheran Church records / Gwynedd Chapter.

[43] Graveyard Inscriptions of Christ Episcopal Church (Old Swedes), Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County. Pennsylvania Vital Records, Vol. III. p. 272.

[44] Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5, Volume VIII, Fourth Battalion Northampton County Militia, p 359. Accessed on 1 February 2015 via http://www.fold3.com/image/3530651/.

[45] Pennsylvania Archives, Series 5 Volume VIII, Battalions Not Stated Northampton County Miltia, p 591. Accessed on 1 February 2015 via http://www.fold3.com/image/3530887/.

[46] Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed via http://www.fold3.com/image/20159031/ on 7 February 2015.

[47] National Archives and Records Administration: Letterbook, War Dept Accountant, RG217, Image 224. (Accessed via http://wardepartmentpapers.org/docimage.php?id=19162&docColID=20849). See also images 73, 196, 348 and 371.

[48] Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed via http://www.fold3.com/image/20159032/ on 7 February 2015.

[49] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lancaster County, 1723-1777 & 1778-1800. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1997

[50] Diffenderffer, Frank Reid. “The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike.” Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society; v. 6, no. 8. May 2 and June 6, 1902. Lancaster, Pa.

[51] Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed via http://www.fold3.com/image/20159030/ on 7 February 2015.

[52] Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed via http://www.fold3.com/image/20159032/ on 7 February 2015.

[53] Res publica vs. Jacob Slough. Nov. 1792. Lancaster County, Grand Jury Indictments.

Commonwealth vs. Col. Jacob Slough, Assault & Battery. April 1808. Lancaster County, Grand Jury Indictments.

[54] U.S. Census. Year: 1820. Census Place: Lancaster, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Page: 74; NARA Roll: M33_106; Image: 52.

[54] U.S. Census. Year: 1810; Census Place: Lancaster, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Roll: 50; Page: 594; Image: 00172; Family History Library Film: 0193676.

[55] Egle, William Henry (ed.). Notes and Queries Historical and Genealogical /Chiefly Relating to Interior of Pennsylvania Series 3 Volume II. Genealogical Publishing Company. Baltimore. 1970. pp 260-261. (Accessed via http://interactive.ancestry.com/48392/QueriesPA3II-002048-261/327030)

Pennsylvania Vital Records From the Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine and the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Baltimore. Genealogical Publishing Company. 1983. p. 575;

Genealogical Gleanings from the Lancaster Journal, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. (Accessed via http://interactive.ancestry.com/48383/PAVitalRecordsII-001683-575/323645)

[56] “Mortuary Notice.” 23 Mar 1820. Free Press [Lancaster, PA]. p 3.

[57] Pennsylvania, Lancaster County Orphan’s Court, Administrations. 6 Mar 1838.

[58] Pennsylvania, Lancaster County Orphan’s Court, Administrations. 20 Mar 1838.

[59] “The Taverns of Early Lancaster.” Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society. Vol. 73. 1969. p 61.

[60] “Peterman, Elizabeth; Petition for tavern license; 1835.” County Archives. Lancaster Historical Society. Accessed on 16 Feb 2015 via https://lancasterhistory.org/component/collections/?view=archives&task=display_item&item_id=63806&Itemid=0

[61] Yoder, Don. Pennsylvania German Church Records of Births, Baptisms, Marriages & Burials, etc. Genealogical Publishing Company. Baltimore. 1983.

Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lancaster County, 1778-1800. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1997

[62] Diffenderfer, Frank Reid. The German Immigration into Pennsylvania Through the Port of Philadelphia, 1700-1773: Part II The Redemptioners. New Era Printing Company. Lancaster, Penna. 1900. pp 159-160.

[63] Humphrey, John T. Pennsylvania Births, Lehigh County, 1734-1800. Humphrey Publications. Washington, D.C. 1992. p 250.

[64] Jordan Reformed Church records, 1765-1937 (South Whitehall Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania). FHL 1671314.

[65] Pennsylvania, Northampton County. Recorder of Deeds. Deeds, v. E1, 1785-1792, pp. 125-126. FHL 953685.

[66] U.S. Census. Year: 1790; Census Place: Mecklenburg, North Carolina; Series: M637; Roll: 7; Page: 368; Image: 542; Family History Library Film: 0568147.
U.S. Census. Year: 1800; Census Place: Salisbury, Cabarrus, North Carolina; Series: M32; Roll: 29; Page: 718; Image: 282; Family History Library Film: 337905.
U.S. Census. Year: 1810; Census Place: Morganton, Burke, North Carolina; Roll: 39; Page: 317; Image: 00211; Family History Library Film: 0337912.

[67] U.S. Census. Year: 1800; Census Place: East Pennsboro, Cumberland, Pennsylvania; Series: M32; Roll: 38; Page: 62; Image: 68; Family History Library Film: 363341.

[68] Baptismal and marriage records, Rev. John Waldschmidt, Cocalico, Moden Krick, Weisseichen Land and Seltenriech Gemeinde, Lancaster County, Penna., 1752-1786. p250. Accessed via https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE3825247 on 25 January 2015.

[69] “Hohn’s Church Records, 1745-1805. St. John’s Reformed Church, Commonly called ‘Hain’s Church,’ Heidelberg Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania Vital Records Vol 1. Genealogical Publishing Company. Baltimore. 1983. p. 460. Excerpted and reprinted from the Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine and the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography.

[70] Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line (accessed via http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=60359148 on 27 January 2015)]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

[71] U.S. Census. 1820 U S Census; Census Place: Cocalico, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Page: 35; NARA Roll: M33_106; Image: 31. U.S. Year: 1850; Census Place: East Cocalico, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Roll: M432_789; Page: 347B; Image: 695.

[72] Ancestry.com. Pennsylvania, Septennial Census, 1779-1863 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Citing Septennial Census Returns, 1779–1863. Box 1026, microfilm, 14 rolls. Records of the House of Representatives. Records of the General Assembly, Record Group 7. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, PA.

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